...point 
A few other comologies will be only summarily described. This is for lack of erudition, Indian, Chinese and American comologies are equally fascinating.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...as 
The American Heritage Dictionary (second college edition)
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...argument 
From http://puffin.ptialaska.net/~svend/award.html
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...harmful.'' 
Extracted from ``What's New'', by Robert L. Park (March 3, 1995) produced by The American Physical Society.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
... 
See for example, http://www.nas.org/nassnl/2-11.htm,
http://cyberwarped.com/~gcahf/ncahf/newslett/nl19-2.html,
http://washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/WPlate/1997-08/10/097l-081097-idx.html

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...Randi 
http://www.mindspring.com/~anson/randi-hotline/1995/0046.html
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...issue 
The complete version can be found in the World-Wide-Web at http://www.pd.infn.it/wwwcdf/science.html
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...omnipotent 
Some relate this to the origin of the decimal system, but it seems to me more reasonable to associate the decimal system to our having ten fingers.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...circumference 
Aristotle had previously estimated a value of 400,000 stadia (1 stadium=157.5m) which is about 1.6 times its actual size.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...God 
From, A History of Science by H. Smith Williams.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...moving 
This was a prescient remark, see Sect. 4.2 and Chap. 6.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...Earth. 
This statement was produced during an informal after-dinner conversation and was published after Luther's death; it should therefore be taken with caution.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...weight 
Galileo allegedly demonstrated his conclusions by dropping weights from the leaning tower of Pisa though this has been doubted by historians.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...him! 
No real animals were hurt in this demonstration.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...(1610) 
This landed him a permanent position as ``Chief Mathematician of the University of Pisa and Philosopher and Mathematician to the Grand Duke of Tuscany''
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...HREF="node84.html#chap-gtr">7
F = m a is also not universally valid but deviations from this expression occur only at very small distances and can be understood in the framework of Quantum Mechanics.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...particles 
This is not true when phenomena at very short distances are examined, at distances below 10-8cm (atomic size) the difference between waves and particles becomes blurred.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...unanswered 
One can, however, use this result to get a limit on the speed of light. If the human response time is, say, half a second, then this experiment shows that light travels faster than 2miles per second.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...speed 
The speed depends on the medium in which light travels; the value given above corresponds to the speed in space.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...vacuum 
In a medium there is some interaction between the atoms and the waves and the speed can be different.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...v 
In practice the experiment is set on a rotating table and is repeated for a variety of orientations.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...distance. 
This was explained by Spock to Kirk...at great length.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...device 
One can, of course, say that the length of a ruler is the one measured while at rest with respect to it...but this is only a convention. Once the result of any length measurement is known (for any relative speed between ruler and measuring device), special relativity determines unambiguously what any other observer would measure.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...ft) 
This corresponds to an astronaut moving at about half the speed of light toward the plate.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...Earth 
This corresponds to a speed of 90% that of light
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...height 
I ignore air resistance
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...small
The reasons behind the requirement that the box be small will become clear soon.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...gem 
The Special Theory of Relativity is equally nice, it is based on the one statement that all inertial frames of reference are equivalent.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...known 
For all we know our present theories of mechanics and gravitation may also be invalid under certain conditions.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...hole 
This is much more efficient than nuclear power which would be incapable of driving such bright sources.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...decrease 
Needless to say this is a very small effect, of the order of one part in a trillion.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...acceleration 
I assume that the objects coming into this region are not too heavy, so that their gravitational forces can be ignored and that the start from the same spot with identical velocities.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...characteristics 
I am assuming here that the moving things are not massive enough to noticeably curve space on their own.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...source 
More precisely this is the velocity along the line of sight,
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...stars 
The name derives from the constellation in which they were first observed.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...cloud 
This is a small galaxy (of only 108 stars) bound to the Milky Way.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...cases 
In doing so astronomers must select type Ia supernovae that exhibit no abnormalities, else the measurements might be corrupted.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...solutions 
The modification amounts to the inclusion of a uniform cosmic pressure which balances the tendency to the universe to expand.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...quarks 
There are many hypotheses about the way the universe looked at times before that of quark formation, but none has been accepted yet this is an area of active research.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...particles 
It had been assumed for a long time that they were massless, recent results however, indicate that neutrinos have a very small mass, of a billionth of a proton mass or less.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...electrons 
Everything is made up of atoms. Atoms consist of a very dense and small nucleus and a bunch of electrons surrounding it.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...pressure 
This is just a peculiar name and should not be interpreted as a judgment on the moral character of the electrons.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...high 
Remember that the pressure must balance gravity's pull. A star is a very massive body, hence gravity's pull will be very large; the pressure must then be also very large to cancel it.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
...motel 
You check in...but you never check out
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
Jose Wudka
9/24/1998